Реферат к конкурсу За страницами учебника (6 класс)
Pisarevskaya secondary school
AROUND THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
Done by Anton Zakhvataev
Advisor: the teacher of English - N. S. Mozgutova
Chapter I. Some Theoretical Aspects of the English Language History……………………….4-6
Chapter II. The History of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland……...6-8
Chapter III. The Geographical position of the Country………………………………………..8-9
Chapter V. British Cities, Towns and Villages………………………………………………..9-10
Chapter VI. How to create a route to the UK………………………………………………..10-13
The list of literature and Internet sources ……………………………………………………….15
People have been traveling since time immemorial. We still want to have learning more about the world. It explains the increasing popularity of visiting other countries in recent years. And there are a lot of programs on TV and radio about trips. Our world is rather big with its own cultures, habits, customs and lives. There are many wonderful places around us to explore.
Lately we have studied some facts about Great Britain. Unfortunately, we have a little time for this topic. We would like to get more information about unknown cities and towns of the UK. Therefore, we have decided to do it after lessons.
The aim of my report is to inquire some unstudied cities and towns of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
To do it we had to set some abstract problems:
To study special literature and internet sources on this subject;
To learn the map of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in more depth;
To interview my classmates about the problem;
To create a special route for the trip.
Chapter I. Some Theoretical Aspects of the English Language History
Every living language changes through time. It is natural that no records of linguistic changes have ever been kept.
The history of the English language has been reconstructed on the basis of written records of different periods. It begins with the invasion of the British Isles by Germanic tribes in the 5th c. of our era.
The development of English, however, began a long time before it was first recorded. In order to say where the English language came from, when and how it has acquired its specific features, one must get acquainted with some facts of the prewritten history of the Germanic group.
Certain information about the early stages of English and Germanic history is to be found in the works of ancient historians and geographers, especially Romans. They contain descriptions of Germanic tribes, personal names and place-names.
Like any movement in nature and society, the evolution of language is caused by the struggle of opposites.
Languages can be classified according to different principles. The historical, or genealogical classification, groups languages in accordance with their origin from a common linguistic ancestor.
Genetically, English belongs to the Germanic or Teutonic group of languages, which is one of the twelve groups of the IE linguistic family. Most of the area of Europe and large parts of other continents are occupied today by the IE languages, Germanic being one of their major groups.
The Germanic languages in the modern world are as follows:
English - in Great Britain, Ireland, the ASA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the South African Republic, and many other former British colonies and dominions;
German - in the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Luxemburg, Liechtenstein, part of Switzerland;
Netherlandish - in the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium);
Afrikaans - in the South African Republic;
Danish - in Denmark;
Swedish - in Sweden and Finland;
Norwegian - in Norway;
Icelandic - in Iceland;
Frisian - in some regions of the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany;
Faroese - in the Faroe Islands;
Yiddish - in different countries.
The history of the Germanic group begins with the appearance of what is known as the Proto-Germanic (PG) language. PG is the linguistic ancestor or the parent-language of the Germanic group.
An original Germanic alphabet is known as the runic alphabet or the runes. The runes were used by North and West Germanic tribes.
The Germanic tribes who settled in Britain in the 5th and 6 th c. spoke closely related tribal dialects belonging to the West Germanic subgroup.
The following four principal old English dialects are commonly distinguished:
Kentish, a dialect spoken in the area known now as Kent and Surrey and in the Isle of Wight.
West Saxon, the main dialect of the Saxon group, spoken in the rest of England south of the Thames and the Bristol Channel, except Wales and Cornwall.
Mercian, a dialect derived from the speech of southern Angles and spoken chiefly in the kingdom of Mercia (the central region from the Thames to the Humber);
Northumbrian, another Anglian dialect, spoken from the Humber north to the river Forth.
Our knowledge of the OE language comes mainly from manuscripts written in Latin characters. Like elsewhere in Western Europe Latin in England was the language of the church and also the language of writing and education.
The first English words to be written down with the help of Latin characters were personal names and place names inserted in Latin texts. Many documents were written and copied in Latin.
Latin words started to be used in the names of English places a very long time ago. The Latin word strata later developed into the English word street. The Latin portus became the English port and is seen in names of many English places: Southport, Portland, Portsmouth.
Sometimes elements of different languages influence the names of places. In the name of Shakespeare's birthplace, Stratford-upon-Avon, we see four words from three different languages. In this town, a Roman road (in Latin strata) crossed the Avon (in the Welsh language, the word afon means a river). The English word ford means a place where we can cross a river. So the name Stratford-upon-Avon means the place where the road crosses the river. From this we know that at from this we know that at different times, Romans, Welsh and English people lived here.
The OE vocabulary was almost purely Germanic; except for a small number of borrowings, it consisted of native words.
There are very few Celtic loan-words in the OE vocabulary for there must have been little intermixture between the Germanic settlers and the Celtic in Britain.
The Northern dialects had developed from OE Northumbrian. In Early ME the Northern dialects included several provincial dialects, e.g. the Yorkshire and the Lancashire dialects and also what later became known as Scottish.
The domination of the French language in England came to an end in the course of the 14th c.
In the 14th c. Anglo-Norman was a dead language; it appeared as corrupt French to those who had access to the French of Paris through books, education or direct contacts.
Chapter II. The History of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Two thousand years ago the Celts, who had been arriving from Europe, mixed with the peoples who were already in Britain Isles. The Roman province of Britannia covered most of the territory of present - day England and Wales. The Romans imposed their own way of living, culture, and language. But in spite of their long occupation of Britain, there isn't much they left behind. Even most of temples, roads and cities were later destroyed. But such place-names like Chester, Lancaster, Gloucester remind us of the Romans.
The Romans influenced mainly the towns. In the country (where most people lived) Celtic speech dominated. The farming methods remained there unchanged. We can't speak about Roman's occupation as a large scale settlement.
Later (during the 5th century) two tribes (the Angles and the Saxons) settled in Britain. They settled on a very vast territory. Only in the west of the country, King Arthur and his army halted the tribes. But in 6th c. the way of life of these tribes predominated in England. The Celtic Britons' culture and language survived in South-West Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.
If the Romans had great influence on towns, the Anglo-Saxons influenced the countryside. There new methods of farming were introduced and a number of villages were founded.
The Anglo-Saxons were pagans, when they arrived in Britain. Christianity came from Rome in 597.
In the 8th c. Britain was invaded by the Vikings, who came from Scandinavia. They settled in the North and West of Scotland and in some regions of Ireland. Later they were defeated by King Alfred.
Normans invaded Britain in the 11th c. (1066). But this invasion wasn't a large scale one. Still this invasion influenced the life of Britain greatly.
At that time a feudal system was imposed Lords and barons were French-speaking Normans. The peasants were the English-speaking Saxons.
Barons were responsible to the king lords-to a baron. Under them were peasants. That was the beginning of the English class system. The Anglo-Norman kingdom was the most powerful political force at that time.
In this period, the Germanic language (Middle English) dominated in England. As Northern and Central Wales was never settled by Saxons and Normans, the Welsh language and culture dominated there.
In the 13th c. Parliament included elected representatives from urban and rural areas.
During the 16th c. the power of the English monarch increased. The Tudor dynasty (1485-1603) established a system of government, which strongly depend on the monarch. Parliament was split into two Houses. The House of Lords consisted of the aristocracy and the leaders of the Church. The House of Commons consisted of representatives from the towns.
During the 17th c. Parliament established its supremacy over the monarchy in Britain. The conflict between the monarchy and Parliament led to the Civil Wars, which ended with the victory of Parliament. The leader of the parliamentary army was Oliver Cromwell. But after his death his system of government became unpopular. The son of the executed king was asked to take the throne.
In the 18th c. the Scottish Parliament joined with the English and the Welsh Parliaments.
In that century, the increased trade led to the Industrial Revolution. People from rural areas moved to towns. The population of London was close to a million at that time.
In the 19th c. Britain controlled the biggest Empire in the world. The Empire was made up of Ireland, Canada Australia, India and large parts of Africa. These countries had internal self-government, but recognized the authority of the British government. Britain was the greatest economic power. The British spread their culture and civilization around the world.
The beginning of the 20th c. cant be called stable. Women struggled for their rights. The situation in Ulster wasn't stable. At the beginning of this century the working class became stronger. In Parliament, the Labour party replaced the Liberals. Trade unions organized themselves. Until 1980s the Trades Union Congress was the most powerful political force outside the institutions of government.
The UK is a parliamentary monarchy. But it is well known that the monarchy today has no power. Some British people say that the country does not need a king or a queen. They are sure that too much money is spent on keeping up the monarchy.
As we know, a parliament is the group of people who make the laws of their country. British laws are made in the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
The main political parties in GB are the Conservative, Labour, Liberal and Social-Democratic Parties.
Chapter III. The Geographical position of the Country
The official name for the country whose language we study is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In everyday use, however, the word "Britain" is quite possible.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has several different names.
Some people say "Great Britain", or "Britain", or "the United Kingdom", or just "the UK" and "GB". This name is historic. It sends us back to the time of the Roman invasion. The Romans gave the name of Britannia to their southern British province. Now it is used for the larger island of the British Isles and even for the whole country because of the political and economic dominance of this part.
Great Britain is an island that lies off the north west of Europe. It is the largest island in Europe. It is 500 km wide and nearly 1,000 km long.
There is the Atlantic Ocean on the north of it and the North Sea on the east.
The English Channel, which is about 21 miles, separates the UK from the continent. Its closest continental neighbors are France and Belgium. Recently the channel Tunnel, which links France and England, has been built.
There are four countries in the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
England, Scotland and Wales are three main parts of Great Britain. Scotland is in the north. Edinburgh is Scotland's capital; it is one of the most beautiful cities in Britain. Wales is in the west. The capital city of Wales is Cardiff.
Ireland, which is also an island, lies off the west coast of Great Britain. Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic (Eire) are on this island. Belfast is the largest city in Northern Ireland and it is its capital.
Great Britain together with Northern Ireland constitutes the United Kingdom.
It is half the size of France or Spain, but the English language is the first language of international communication in the world. By the way, if you visit Scotland one day, you may have some trouble understanding people there. It is because they have a strong accent which can be difficult to understand.
The capital city of Great Britain is London, which is situated in the south-east of England. London is more than a thousand years old.
The climate of the British Isles is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Winters are not so cold as they can be on the continent, but summers are not so warm as they usually are on the other side of the Channel. In other words GB has a mild climate. The climate here is rather cool and changeable but it often rains which is good for plants.
England is famous for its beautiful lawns with flowers. They stay green all the year round. Many people say that England looks like a large well-kept park. The British love their green gardens full of beautiful flowers. Great Britain is rich in gardens and parks which are famous all over the world.
The animal of the British Isles look like those of north-western Europe: foxes, squirrels, hares, etc. There are about 430 kinds of birds, many of them are song-birds. The most popular hobby of Englishmen is bird-watching.
Chapter V. British Cities, Towns and Villages
The poetic name of the country ALBION is also closely associated with the Romans. It comes from the Latin word "albus", meaning "white" and reminds us of the white chalk cliffs around Dover on the south coast. The Romans saw white cliffs when crossing the sea from the continent.
People mainly live in cities and towns. The country's industry is highly developed and output of goods is larger than is needed for home use. Therefore, a great part of the industrial output is explored. The large industrial centers are Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Nottingham, Liverpool.
National history is almost sacred for the British. A typical British town has a museum or two. As a rule, it is situated on a beautiful site - previously a palace or a manor house - well preserved and sponsored by a national fund or a prominent citizen; inside you might come across a wide range of exhibits, starting, as it is often the case, with pieces of ancient history and winding up by modern art. Apart from the local museum, many small towns have another museum or two which offer something special, showing off the character of the region or reflecting the dexterity of its craftsmen. It might be anything, e.g., woolen mills rather popular in Scotland, garden flowers and plants - in Kent, museums of old ships and old shops - in Sussex seaside towns etc. Moreover, antique shops - so numerous in Britain - could also be regarded as a sort of museums.
Britain is known for versatile tourist attractions. In Alfriston, a little village in Sussex, there is a strange flint cone about three meters high whose peculiar name - the Thing - is proudly written in glittering gold letters on a special board.
The villagers are also proud of an old house - it has a thatched roof. At present the Thatched House is one of the village's prime attractions.
Another peculiar site, the chalk hills in the South of England, had always been haunted by "graffiti artist". The names of those who had carved The Long Man of Wilmington are obscured by the mist of ages.
Chapter VI. How to create a route to the UK
What may be more fantastic than travelling and discovering the world? Lately we have learned some information about the UK and decided to get to know more about its cities. For it, we (with the help of our teacher) have created a special route for travelers. We have read about the UK using the Internet, books. We have explored the map. It was very exciting.
The main city we have heard and learnt about was London. Without doubt, it is a great city. But we would like to study unknown cities and countries. Such a way we (I and my classmates with the help of our teacher) have decided to create a special route to the UK based on our opinion and the world's largest travel site "www.tripadvisor.com". First, I interviewed my classmates about cities and towns in this country. Then we did the list of cities we would like to visit and why. Answers were different. Somebody wants to explore small towns and get a taste of their atmosphere. Other students are very curious and they would like to explore something new. After it, we used the Internet and googled useful information we needed. At least we have chosen cities and towns for the route. And our travelling have started.
Here is the list of chosen cities and towns: Aberdeen, Inverness, Edinburgh, Newcastle-upon-Tune, Windermere, York, Manchester, Stratford-upon-Avon, Brighton, Bath, Cardiff, Llandrindod Wells, Belfast and Londonderry. I would like to write about them in brief.
Aberdeen (a granite city) is Scotland's third largest city, a prosperous cosmopolitan city which first developed around the 12th c. By the 13th c. Aberdeen was an important trade and fishing centre. By the 19th c. shipbuilding was an important industry which declined in the mid-20th c. But then, in the late 1960s, oil fields in the North Sea were discovered. The views of the harbor, beach and city sum up Aberdeen's enduring dependency on the North Sea. Aberdeen is known to many as the "City of Roses". Around 12,000 different types of roses cover every square inch of Duthie Park's Rose Hill. Aberdeen is the biggest oil centre in Great Britain. Ships travel from Aberdeen to the oil rigs in the North Sea. So it is rather rich city.
Inverness, the capital and principal crossroads of the Highlands, has an enviable location at the head of the Great Glen and on the shores of the Moray Firth. It is a bustling and cosmopolitan millennium city dissected by the charming River Ness and overlooking the river is Inverness castle (1830s). The Eden Court Theatre is the focal point of cultural life in the Highlands and Bught Park is the setting for the annual Highland Games. Whenever you go you'll hear music of bagpipes.
"Edinburgh", said writer Robert Louis Stevenson, "is what Paris ought to be." The city of Edinburgh, affectionately known as "Auld Reekie" (Old Smokey) is the historic, cosmolitan and culture capital of Scotland. Edinburgh was originally known as Din Eidyn, the Fort of Eidyn, until 638 - a reference to the fort that stood where the castle now stands. It became a town and a royal burgh in the 12th c. and in 1329 Robert the Bruce gave the town jurisdiction over the Port of Leith. During much of the 19th c., the city that has earned the title "Athens of the North", experienced a golden age of literature and learning. Prominent citizens have included philosopher David Hume, economist Adam Smith, novelists sir Walter scott and Robert Louis Stevenson, biographer James Boswell, physician sir James Simpson and surgeon James Lister.
Newcastle-upon-Tune is a large industrial centre in Britain. Newcastle-upon-Tune, commonly known as Newcastle is a city in Tune and wear, North East England, 103 miles south of Edinburgh. It is the most popular city in the North East. The city has a proud history of theatres and a strong reputation as poetry centre.
Windermere is the largest natural lake in England including places to stay nearby, activities, watersports and family attractions. It is a small town on the bank of Lake Winder in the county of Cumbria. Windermere is a lake district with placid rest. It has been one of the country's most popular places for holidays and summer homes. The word "Windermere" is thought to translate as "Winand or Vinand's Lake".
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the river Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events in England throughout much of its two millennia of existence. York offers a wealth of historic attractions, of which York Minister is the most prominent and a variety of cultural and sporting activities making it popular tourist destination for millions. The city was founded by the Romans. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. It is urban area. It is a homeland of football team "Manchester United" and some music bands.
Stratford-upon-Avon is a market town in Warwickshire on the river Avon. It is a town where William Shakespeare was born. Every year 4 million tourists visit this place, They usually come to the well-known Royal Shakespeare Theatre - one of the biggest theatres in Britain. Also this town is one of the largest farm of butterflies' breeding. By the way, it is a delighted town, which can easily be walked around and explored on foot.
Brighton is an enchanting, romantic and exciting seaside resort and the largest part of the City of Brighton and Hove situated in East Sussex, England. It is rich in beaches. One of them is a Naturist beach where there are about half a dozen tents set up right on the sand. The Brighton Marina is the largest Marina in the UK where you can see yachts and old fishing boats. Brighton Palace Pier is another very interesting and fun place to walk. It is a great place to buy ice cream. If you are lucky enough, you may find a vacant bench along the pier.
Bath is a small city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths,fed by three hot springs. According to the legend, the city of Bath was founded by Bladud, the eldest son of the Celtic King Lud, who lived around 800 BC. When he became a king, he built a temple by the spring and founded a city around it. When the Romans arrived in Britain, they made great use of the natural hot springs and built a luxurious spa centre. Bath is a lovely city and it's popular with tourists all year round. There are museums and art galleries, and most tourist attractions have their own museums. There are five theatres in Bath. Bath Abbey is one of the most beautiful Gothic cathedrals in Britain. The city holds lots of festivals. The best place to enjoy the beautiful architecture of the city is in the sky. If you are lucky and the wind is in the right direction, you can fly over it in a brightly coloured balloon!
Cardiff is the capital and the largest city of wales and the tenth largest city in the UK. The city is the country's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural and sporting institutions. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales. The city of Cardiff is the country town of the historic county of Glamorgan (and later South Glamorgan). Cardiff is a part of the Euro cities network of the largest European cities. Cardiff is known for its extensive parkland with parks and other such green spaces covering around 10% of the city's total area.
Llandrindod Wells is a town and community in Powys, within the historic boundaries of Radnorshire, Wales, It was developed as a spa town in the 19th c. It is locally nicknamed "Llandod" or "Dod". The architecture of the town includes many buildings in ornate styles dating from the boom period of the Victorian and Edwardian eras. Today it's a busy market town, holding an open-air market once a week on Fridays.
Belfast is the capital and largest city of NI. Most of Belfast, including the city centre is in county Antrim, but parts of East and South Belfast are in county Down. It's on the flood plain of the River Lagan. The city's motto is Pro Tanto Quid Retribuamus (roughly Latin for "what shall we give in return for so much). Since 2001, boosted by increasing numbers of ourists, the city council has developed a number of cultural quarters.Belfast is one of the most visited cities in the UK and the second most visited on the island of Ireland. It is a home of Botanic Gardens and the Ulster Museum, which was opened in 2009. Nowadays Belfast is an important centre of textile manufacture, aircraft production, electrical engineering and shipbuilding centre.
Londonderry or Derry is the second largest city in NI in Londonderry County. The city centre has two main shopping centers: the Foyleside shopping centre, which has 45 stores and 1430 parking spaces and the Richmond centre, which has 39 retail units. The Millennium Forum is the main theatre in the city, it holds numerous shows weekly.
P.S. You may find some interesting sights of each city in Appendix №3
The world is a wonderful place to live. We live in a global village but every small place is a small world. There are a lot of exciting places and sights to explore. Our planet is rich in many interesting and unusual countries too. Moreover, each country has its original cities.
Travelling you meet people who are also travelling. You can exchange your travel experience with them; share your favourite pictures of the sights.
In addition, when you travel to other countries you can get to know new foods typical for a country of your stay. According to your physical shape or depending on how much money you can afford to spend on a trip you are able to arrange a hiking trip, a safari, a cultural trip, or an adventure cruise. You can travel by train, by plane, by car, by ship, or even on foot.
What for do people travel? There are great numbers of ideas about this question. Somebody wants to change life and meet new people. Other would like to make a fortune and discover new places. Some people travel because of curiosity or feel down or stressed out.
However, frankly speaking (and it is not a secret at all), everybody has a sense of adventure. We are sure travelling is worth the effort and money. At least it makes your life more bright with flying colours!
The list of literature and Internet sources
Английский язык: Учеб. для 5 кл. общеоразоват. учреждений / В.П.Кузовлев, И.Н. Лака, Э.Ш. Перегудова и др. - 2-е изд. - М.: Просвещение, 2007. - 368;
Английский язык: Учеб. для 9 кл. общеоразоват. учреждений / В.П.Кузовлев, И.Н.
Лака, Э.Ш. Перегудова и др. -12-е изд. - М.: Просвещение, 2007. - 288;
Английский язык: Английский с удовольствием / Enjoy English: Учебник для 6 кл. общеобраз. учрежд. / М.З.Биболетова, О.А. Денисенко, Н.Н. Трубанева.- Обнинск: Титул, 2013. - 208;
Английский язык: Английский с удовольствием / Enjoy English: Учебник для 9 кл. общеобраз. учрежд. / М.З.Биболетова, Е.Е. Бабушис, О.И. Кларк, А.Н. Морозова. - Обнинск: Титул, 2013. - 240;
Английский язык: Учеб. для 9 кл. общеобразоват. Учреждений / А.П. Старков, Р.Р. Диксон, Б.С. Островский. - 3-е изд. - М: ООО «АСТ», 2002. - 309;
История английского языка: Учебник / Т.А. Расторгуева. - 2-е изд. - М.: Астрель: АСТ, 2007. - 248;
Книга для чтения к учебному пособию «Счастливый английский Кн. 2» для учащихся 7-9 кл. общеобразов. шк. - Обнинск: Титул, 2000 - 336;
Газета издательского дома: Первое сентября / А. Соловейчик - 2008;
Газета издательского дома: Первое сентября / А. Соловейчик - 2012;
www. eng. 1 september.ru;
www. english - study - café.ru;
www. interactive</ - English.ru;
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